Oct 25, 2020
Indonesian Coffee is exquisite due to its soil uniqueness and its natural equatorial climate. The Geographical Indication extends into the various region with distinctive aroma and taste of Indonesian islands in its vast archipelago.
Indonesia is one of the world’s largest coffee producer and exporter. The coffee export consists of Robusta and Arabica types. Some of the exported coffee have achieved Geographical Indication, issued by the Directorate General of Intellectual Property of the Ministry of Law and Human Rights (DGIP).
Geographical Indication is a part of intellectual property. It indicates the place of origin of a specific item or product. Geographical environmental factors present the reputation, quality, and a unique characteristic that will increase the value of the product. The geographical environmental factors include natural environment, human touch, or a combination of both in a certain region. For example, Gayo Arabica coffee indicates the origin of the Aceh Province in the northernmost tip of Sumatra.
Indonesian government granted its first Geographical Indication certificate to Kintamani Bali, Arabica coffee in 2008. After the certification of Kintamani Bali Arabica coffee, many local governments which have distinctive taste local coffee are motivated to protect their Geographical Indication. Not just coffee, many of its other plantation and agricultural products such as pepper, rice, tea, tobacco and other manufactured products are registered as Geographical Indication products.
Up until now, DGIP reported that there are 140 local and foreign applications for Geographical Indication which mostly are for coffee products. From the beginning of 2020 until September 2020, there are 4 (four) Geographical Indication applications for coffee products in DGIP. They are Hyang Argopuro Arabica coffee from Bondowoso Regency, East Java Province, Robusta Sumatera Marangin coffee, North Tapanuli Arabica coffee from North Sumatra Province and Manggarai Robusta coffee from East Nusa Tenggara Province.
As stated in the Hyang Argopuro Arabica coffee’s Geographical Indication application document, Bondowoso Regency is one of the strategic areas that has the potential to produce quality coffee in East Java Province.
The Bondowoso Regency can be geographically seen as the Argopuro mountains in the west (part of the Hyang Mountains), the fluctuating highlands in the middle and the mountain area of Ijen in the east.
In the western area, the foot of the Argopuro Mountains are mostly producing the Arabica types. The area’s altitude are between 900 m above sea level (asl) to around 1300m asl, with temperature ranging from 15.40 Celsius degrees to 25.10 Celsius degrees and a humidity level around 60.5%. While the average annual rainfall is 2,499 mm/year, and dry season is 3-4 months a year.
The soil fertility of the Hyang Argopuro in Bondowoso Regency has been analyzed by The Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Center. The analytical research resulted that Hyang Argopuro’s soil condition has a high fertility rate.
Hyang Argopuro Arabica has the consistency of distinctive coffee flavors that are spicy, nutty, and caramelly. This is in accordance with the 2019 data which shows that it was scored above 80.00. From the other perspective, based on the result of the physical Grading test, Hyang Argopuro Arabica coffee is considered Grade 2.
Administratively, the Hyang Argopuro Arabica coffee Geographical Indication area covers 5 Districts, which are Pakem, Maesan, Curahdami, Binakal, and Grujugan. This Hyang Argopuro Arabica coffee has been cultivated since the 1980s. The young Argopuro coffee has been produced during colonial times but had development constraints due to a certain pest. Which now has been overcome.
As the applicant of Geographical Indication, Association for the Protection of Geographical Indications of Hyang Argopuro Arabica coffee (PMPIG of Argopuro Arabica Coffee) has produced several types of coffee products, which are green beans, roasted beans and ground coffee.
Indonesia is said to be one of the countries with the best coffee market potential in the world. This is based on the fact that Indonesia has a wide variety of coffee flavors that are most demanded by consumers in the world compared to the other ASEAN countries. Data says, the growth of the Indonesian coffee market during the 2012 to 2016 reached 19.6%. That made Indonesia the fastest growing coffee market compared to Turkey, India, Vietnam and Chile.
Aceh Gayo coffee is one of the most well-known Indonesian coffee in the European market, which leads to a big economic potential for Indonesia. It’s Geographical Indication protection was granted in April 2010 by the government. Aceh Gayo coffee holds prominent in the European consumer market due to its distinctive taste and aroma.
(Siti Mariam Nabila/ Nadia Mauliada/Alita Byanti/SU)